SECTION A – MEASURABLE STANDARDS
All reproduction criteria is analysed annually with the aid
of the herd analysis by the Technical Advisor and owner
within herd context. Heifers must calve before or on 39
months. Average DLC (Days last calved) may not exceed 730
Determine scrotum circumference between 1 and 2 years (excemption
of breeding values if all bulls are measured). Minimum
requirements for registration is:
<400kg = 32cm
401 – 450kg = 33cm
451 – 500kg = 34cm
501 – 550kg = 35cm
551 – 600kg = 36cm
>601kg = 37cm
2. BLUP Breeding Values
“Until the mid nineties breeding aims and standard of
excellence were based on visual appraisal alone because
nothing better was available. The result was rather slow
improvement and in some breeds negative improvement.
Fortunately, Blup EBV’s have improved selection methods
dramatically and visual appraisal is today used as an aid to
the much more accurate EBV selection. By far the best way to
define a breeding aim for a herd or breed is to determine an
ideal set of EBV’s. The ideal set of EBV’s for a breed are
based on the likely future market demands in 3 to 5 year’s
time because “the breeding for today” is already done.” (Zoellner).
SECTION B – DESCRIPTIVE BREEDING AIM
Notwithstanding the enormous environmental differences under
which breeders in Southern Africa farm there are common
breeding aims, which can be, implemented everywhere. We
strive to breed an animal which is a profitable producer and
for which there is a demand in the industry.
Reproduction (fertility) enjoys the highest
priority at all levels. Under normal circumstances it is
expected that Simmentaler cows produce a calf annually
and raise and wean it efficiently. Judges, inspectors
and course examiners must constantly pay attention to
this and give priority to reproduction.
Calving ease. Discriminate against
characteristics such as prominence, coarseness, flat
rump and “too large” size which are all associated with
difficult calving as well as a heavy birth weight which
is usually caused by continued selection for large
animals – this has been proved world-wide.
Size. Due to the large environmental variation
under which our breeders farm and differences in bull
buyer preferences, it is impossible to lay down a
minimum size and/or weight for age in a national
breeding aim. However, because of negative
characteristics which are associated with larger
cattle*, the “middle-of-the-road size” is recommended
and discrimination against “too large” animals is
practised at inspection, judging and courses.
(*Higher maintenance requirements, weak constitution,
late puberty and heavier birth weight and thus calving
problems). The cow which calves yearly in her
natural environment and weans a heavy calf relative to
her weight (± 50%), has the size that is pursued by the
Selection for adaptability. Only animals which
are properly adapted and happy in their environment will
produce. Constitution (appearance of the animal),
hardiness (reaction to environmental stressors) and
adaptability (to thrive and produce in a certain
environment), for the purpose hereof, are all classified
under this objective. Identify the cows which reproduce
and produce under hars conditions as well, look at their
appearance and capture their picture in the breeding
Use the eye and the scale. There are good
performers with a poor appearance as well as champions
with poor performance. Inspection (appearance) is
obligatory and selection according to breeding values
(performance testing) is strongly recommended.
SECTION C – STANDARD OF EXCELLENCE
A breed’s Standard of Excellence is a detailed manual based
only on appearance and is used by breeders and judges for
the identifying of animals with desirable characteristics.
Terms like good, strong, attractive etc. suggest
contribution towards better functional efficiency.
Characteristic attributes must comply with this Standard of
2. Type and Balance
A dual purpose animal possessing a great measure of good
beef and milk producing characteristics. Sex characteristics
must be clearly visible and animals must have a good frame,
length, width, depth, capacity, balance and symmetry. Bulls
more muscular than females.
Temperament: Calm and placid, yet alert.
Bull: Strong, masculine with good general muscle
development particularly on forearm, shoulder, eye muscle
and hindquarter; no excessive fat particularly in the
flanks, brisket and around the tailhead; testes
well-developed and of uniform size carried above the hocks,
sheath not pendulous. Older bulls develop heavier and more
muscular in the forequarter. Hair on the neck and head
longer and coarser than females.
Female: Feminine appearance, wedge-shaped outline,
especially when in milk, neither over-developed muscling nor
massive and heavy, no excessive fat deposit on any part of
the body; well-developed genital organs, heifers udder and
teat development must be visible.
Joints firm and dry; hair of smooth texture; skin pliable,
thick and supple; hooves strong, of good quality and
Adequate width, of medium length, slightly dished
between the eyes.
Good width between the eyes tapering slightly
towards the poll.
Prominent, large with pliable, thick wrinkled skin
around the eyes.
Wide, oval and strong.
Wide and strong with broad lips.
Large and oval.
Large and strong, incisors fitting well against the
Of good quality and texture, no discrimination
against dehorned or naturally polled animals.
Large, flexible fine texture, covered with long hair
along the upper inner section.
Large, bright with a placid expression and flexible
Deep and strong, well-developed and cheeks not
Medium length and deep, strongly attached to the
head and shoulders. More developed in the bull. Skin
of the neck loose with deep folds with the dewlap
extending from below the jaw to behind the brisket.
Shoulder-blade to slope slightly forward from top to
bottom with the desired rounding and strong muscle
attachment to the chest, withers and neck. Good
width between the shoulder points, however, not
prominent. Chest depth in proportion to wither
height, i.e. a good relative chest depth and width.
Well muscled forearm in bulls.
3. Centre Piece
Long, wide and deep with good spring
of rib (i.e. capacity), well-blended into fore- and
Straight, long, broad with full muscling. Viewed
from the side, the topline will not necessarily be
straight due to prominent loin muscle development,
particularly in bulls.
Broad and well-muscled.
Broad, long and well-sprung, slanting slightly to
Long, wide and deep, with well-developed muscles joining the
hindquarter firmly to the centrepiece. In the bull, the
frame is covered with muscling, while cows may show more
prominence in the hips. Hips wide and in proportion to the
rest of the body. Good thurl- and pinbone width. Rump long
and wide, with a slight fall to pinbones. Thighs wide,
well-muscled, extending below the flank to a well-developed
second thigh. Tailhead straight, horizontal, however, may be
set slightly high. Tail long with a large switch.
5. Legs, Hooves, Stances and Stride
Strong oval and widely placed to facilitate an easy
and freemoving stride.
Strong, well-developed and dry.
Broad, strong and dry with the correct angle and a
Strong, dry and elastic with the correct angle.
Uniform, of medium size, oval, deep and close
Udder and Teats
A capacious, well-attached udder of high quality, revealing
high production potential, viz. long broad, of moderate
depth with well-balanced quarters. The udder is covered with
short, soft, silky hair. Pliable and elastic in texture.
Heifers must display udder and teat development.
Uniform, cylindrical and of adequate size and
Well-developed, long and winding with large milk
7. Genital Organs
Testicles firm, of equal size, well-developed with a
fairly short seminal cord. Controlable sheath, short
to medium size, opening must point to the front.
8. Skin and Hair
Thick, ample, pliable and loose skin
with short glossy hair with due allowance for the season and
9. Colour and Pigmentation
Adequate pigmentation, hair colour may
vary from dark to cream, white spots or patches in any
pattern may be irregularly spread over the body. Pigmented
eyelids are desirable. Muzzle to be flesh-coloured or brown
- blue spots on the muzzle are permissible
Cream to dark-brown
10. Size and Weight
Animals must be well-grown for their age.
SECTION D - DISCRIMINATIONS AND DISQUALIFICATIONS
(depending on degree of deviation)
Emphasis should be laid on functional efficiency. Animals
with congenital defects or other defects that impair the
functional efficiency of the animal should be disqualified.
Any signs of impurity.
● Predominantly white animals, especially
● Woolly and/or frizzy coat in cases where
the evaluation thereof is disguised.
● Under-developed eyebrows, especially in
● Females with a masculine or steer-like
● Heifers with poor udder and teat
● Bulls with a femine or steer-like
● Malformed genital organs or scrotal
circumference under the set minimum.
● Excessive sheath skin and/or prolapse of
● Thin and tight skin - particularly in
● Any structural defects.
● Poor stance and stride.
● Pony type.
● Rangy type.
● Poor or excessive muscling.
● Excessively fine or excessively coarse
● Narrow, straight hocks with
● Flat, drooping or roofy rump.
● Bad temperament.
● Testicles hanging predominantly below
● Discrimination or disqualification
against untidy sheaths.