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A breedís Standard of Excellence is a detailed manual based only on appearance and is used by breeders and judges to identify animals with desirable characteristics.

Terms like good, strong, attractive etc. suggest contribution towards better functional efficiency.

General Appearance

 

1.   Purity
Characteristic attributes must comply with this Standard of Excellence.

2.   Type and balance
A dual purpose animal possessing a great measure of good beef and milk producing characteristics. Sex characteristics must be clearly visible and animals must have a good frame, length, width, depth, capacity, balance and symmetry. Bulls more muscular than females.

3.   Character
Temperament:      Calm and placid, yet alert.
Sex characteristics:
Bull:  Strong, masculine with good general muscle development particularly on forearm, shoulder, eye muscle and hindquarter; no excessive fat particularly in the flanks, brisket and around the tailhead; testes well-developed and of uniform size carried above the hocks, sheath not pendulous. Older bulls develop heavier and more muscular in the forequarter. Hair on the neck and head longer and coarser than females.
Female:  Feminine appearance, wedge-shaped outline, especially when in milk, neither over-developed muscling nor massive and heavy; no excessive fat deposit on any part of the body; well-developed genital organs, heifers udder and teat development must be visible.

4.   Quality
Joints firm and dry; hair smooth in texture; skin pliable, thick and supple; hooves strong, of good quality and texture.

Conformation

1.   Head and neck
Head:  Adequate width, of medium length, slightly dished between the eyes.

Forehead:  Good width between the eyes tapering slightly towards the poll.
Eyebrows:  Prominent, large with pliable, thick wrinkled skin around the eyes.
Muzzle:  Wide, oval and strong.
Mouth:  Wide and strong with broad lips.
Nostrils:  Large and oval.
Teeth:  Large and strong, incisors fitting well against the pad.
Horns:  Of good quality and texture, no discrimination against dehorned or naturally polled animals.
Ears:  Large, flexible fine texture, covered with long hair along the upper inner section.
Eyes:  Large, bright with a placid expression and flexible eyelids.
Jaws:  Deep and strong, well-developed and cheeks not fleshy.
Neck:  Medium length and deep, strongly attached to the head and shoulders. More developed in the bull. Skin of the neck loose with deep folds with the dewlap extending from below the jaw to behind the brisket.

2.   Forequarter
Shoulders:  Shoulder-blade to slope slightly forward from top to bottom with the desired rounding and strong muscle attachment to the chest, withers and neck. Good width between the shoulder points, however, not prominent. Chest depth in proportion to wither height, i.e. a good relative chest depth and width. Well-muscled forearm in bulls.

3.   Centre piece
Long, wide and deep with good spring of rib (i.e. capacity), well-blended into fore- and hindquarter.
 
Back:  Straight, long, broad with full muscling. Viewed from the side, the topline will not necessarily be straight due to prominent loin muscle development, particularly in bulls.
Loin:  Broad and well-muscled.
Ribs:  Broad, long and well-sprung, slanting slightly to the rear.

4.   Hindquarter
Long, wide and deep, with well-developed muscles joining the hindquarter firmly to the centrepiece. In the bull, the frame is covered with muscling, while cows may show more prominence in the hips. Hips wide and in proportion to the rest of the body. Good thurl and pin bone width. Rump long and wide, with a slight fall to pin bones. Thighs wide, well-muscled, extending below the flank to a well-developed second thigh. Tailhead straight, horizontal, however, may be set slightly high. Tail long with a large switch.

5.   Legs, hooves, stance and stride
Legs:  Strong oval and widely placed to facilitate an easy and freemoving stride.
Joints:  Strong, well-developed and dry.
Hocks:  Broad, strong and dry with the correct angle and a well-defined hamstring.
Pastern-joints:  Strong, dry and elastic with the correct angle.

Hooves:  Uniform, of medium size, oval, deep and close together.

6.   Udder and teats
A capacious, well-attached udder of high quality, revealing high production potential, viz. long, broad, of moderate depth with well-balanced quarters. The udder is covered with short, soft, silky hair. Pliable and elastic in texture. Heifers must display udder and teat development.
Teats:  Uniform, cylindrical and of adequate size and length.
Lacteal veins:  Well-developed, long and winding with large milk wells.

7.   Genital organs
Female:  Well-developed.
Male:  Testicles firm, of equal size, well-developed with a fairly short seminal cord. Controlable sheath, short to medium size, opening must point to the front.

8.   Skin and hair
Thick, ample, pliable and loose skin with short glossy hair with due allowance for the season and age.

9.   Colour and pigmentation
Adequate pigmentation, hair colour may vary from dark red to cream, white spots or patches in any pattern may be irregularly spread over the body. Pigmented eyelids are desirable. Muzzle to be flesh-coloured or brown - blue spots on the muzzle are permissible.
Hooves:  Cream to dark brown.

10.  Size and weight
Animals must be well-grown for their age.

Discriminations and Disqualifications (Depending on degree of deviation) 

Emphasis should be placed on functional efficiency.  According to the Society's constitution, animals with congenital defects or other defects that impair the functional efficiency of the animal should be disqualified.

  • Any signs of impurity.

  • Predominantly white animals, especially in bulls.

  • Woolly and/or frizzy coat in cases where the evaluation thereof is disguised.

  • Under-developed eyebrows, especially in bulls.

  • Females with a masculine or steer-like appearance.

  • Heifers with poor udder and teat development.

  • Bulls with a femine or steer-like appearance.

  • Malformed genital organs or scrotal circumference under the set minimum.

  • Excessive sheath skin and/or prolapse of the prepuce.

  • Thin and tight skin - particularly in bulls.

  • Any structural defects.

  • Poor stance and stride.

  • Pony type.

  • Rangy type.

  • Poor or excessive muscling.

  • Excessively fine or excessively coarse bone structure.

  • Narrow, straight hocks with under-developed hamstring.

  • Flat, drooping or roofy rump.

  • Bad temperament.

  • Unbalanced.

  • Testicles hanging predominantly below the hocks.

 
  
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