Standard of Excellence is a detailed manual based only on
appearance and is used by breeders and judges to identify
animals with desirable characteristics.
like good, strong, attractive etc. suggest contribution
towards better functional efficiency.
Characteristic attributes must comply with this Standard of
2. Type and balance
A dual purpose animal possessing a great measure of good
beef and milk producing characteristics. Sex characteristics
must be clearly visible and animals must have a good frame,
length, width, depth, capacity, balance and symmetry. Bulls
more muscular than females.
Temperament: Calm and placid, yet alert.
Bull: Strong, masculine with good general
muscle development particularly on forearm, shoulder, eye
muscle and hindquarter; no excessive fat particularly in the
flanks, brisket and around the tailhead; testes
well-developed and of uniform size carried above the hocks,
sheath not pendulous. Older bulls develop heavier and more
muscular in the forequarter. Hair on the neck and head
longer and coarser than females.
Female: Feminine appearance, wedge-shaped
outline, especially when in milk, neither over-developed
muscling nor massive and heavy; no excessive fat deposit on
any part of the body; well-developed genital organs, heifers
udder and teat development must be visible.
Joints firm and dry; hair smooth in texture; skin pliable,
thick and supple; hooves strong, of good quality and
1. Head and neck
Head: Adequate width, of medium length, slightly
dished between the eyes.
Forehead: Good width between the eyes tapering
slightly towards the poll.
Eyebrows: Prominent, large with pliable, thick
wrinkled skin around the eyes.
Muzzle: Wide, oval and strong.
Mouth: Wide and strong with broad lips.
Nostrils: Large and oval.
Teeth: Large and strong, incisors fitting well against
Horns: Of good quality and texture, no discrimination
against dehorned or naturally polled animals.
Ears: Large, flexible fine texture, covered with long
hair along the upper inner section.
Eyes: Large, bright with a placid expression and
Jaws: Deep and strong, well-developed and cheeks not
Neck: Medium length and deep, strongly attached to the
head and shoulders. More developed in the bull. Skin of the
neck loose with deep folds with the dewlap extending from
below the jaw to behind the brisket.
Shoulders: Shoulder-blade to slope slightly forward
from top to bottom with the desired rounding and strong
muscle attachment to the chest, withers and neck. Good width
between the shoulder points, however, not prominent. Chest
depth in proportion to wither height, i.e. a good relative
chest depth and width. Well-muscled forearm in bulls.
3. Centre piece
Long, wide and deep with good spring of rib (i.e. capacity),
well-blended into fore- and hindquarter.
Back: Straight, long, broad with full muscling. Viewed
from the side, the topline will not necessarily be straight
due to prominent loin muscle development, particularly in
Loin: Broad and well-muscled.
Ribs: Broad, long and well-sprung, slanting slightly
to the rear.
Long, wide and deep, with well-developed muscles joining the
hindquarter firmly to the centrepiece. In the bull, the
frame is covered with muscling, while cows may show more
prominence in the hips. Hips wide and in proportion to the
rest of the body. Good thurl and pin bone width. Rump long
and wide, with a slight fall to pin bones. Thighs wide,
well-muscled, extending below the flank to a well-developed
second thigh. Tailhead straight, horizontal, however, may be
set slightly high. Tail long with a large switch.
5. Legs, hooves, stance and stride
Legs: Strong oval and widely placed to facilitate an
easy and freemoving stride.
Joints: Strong, well-developed and dry.
Hocks: Broad, strong and dry with the correct angle
and a well-defined hamstring.
Pastern-joints: Strong, dry and elastic with the
Hooves: Uniform, of medium size, oval, deep and close
6. Udder and teats
A capacious, well-attached udder of high quality, revealing
high production potential, viz. long, broad, of moderate
depth with well-balanced quarters. The udder is covered with
short, soft, silky hair. Pliable and elastic in texture.
Heifers must display udder and teat development.
Teats: Uniform, cylindrical and of adequate size and
Lacteal veins: Well-developed, long and winding with
large milk wells.
7. Genital organs
Male: Testicles firm, of equal size, well-developed
with a fairly short seminal cord. Controlable sheath, short
to medium size, opening must point to the front.
8. Skin and hair
Thick, ample, pliable and loose skin with short glossy hair
with due allowance for the season and age.
9. Colour and pigmentation
Adequate pigmentation, hair colour may vary from dark red to
cream, white spots or patches in any pattern may be
irregularly spread over the body. Pigmented eyelids are
desirable. Muzzle to be flesh-coloured or brown - blue spots
on the muzzle are permissible.
Hooves: Cream to dark brown.
10. Size and weight
Animals must be well-grown for their age.
Discriminations and Disqualifications (Depending on degree
Emphasis should be placed on functional efficiency.
According to the Society's constitution, animals with
congenital defects or other defects that impair the
functional efficiency of the animal should be disqualified.
Any signs of impurity.
Predominantly white animals, especially in bulls.
Woolly and/or frizzy coat in cases where the evaluation
thereof is disguised.
Under-developed eyebrows, especially in bulls.
Females with a masculine or steer-like appearance.
Heifers with poor udder and teat development.
Bulls with a femine or steer-like appearance.
Malformed genital organs or scrotal circumference under
the set minimum.
Excessive sheath skin and/or prolapse of the prepuce.
Thin and tight skin - particularly in bulls.
Any structural defects.
Poor stance and stride.
Poor or excessive muscling.
Excessively fine or excessively coarse bone structure.
Narrow, straight hocks with under-developed hamstring.
Flat, drooping or roofy rump.
Testicles hanging predominantly below the hocks.